The Perception of Visual Information

The perception of visual information.
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This is now described as AlexNet moment of classical computer vision. By the year , Statistical Machine Learning had taken off in vision.

Humans Are Visual Creatures

Paul Viola and Michael Jones developed one of the best Face Detection algorithm using Machine Learning in which is still one of the fasted face detection methods. In , Fujifilm built the first camera with face detection inbuilt. The success of Support Vector Machines in the late 90s made computer vision bit more easy for object classification tasks. There was still a lack of datasets for doing research. In the direction of creating a standard research-oriented dataset, Andrew Zisserman at Visual Geometry Group , Oxford University along with Mark Everingham created PASCAL Visual Object Classes dataset providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures.

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It leads to the development of both classification and detection algorithms but due to the higher model capacity of contemporary Machine Learning algorithms and comparatively small size of PASCAL dataset, models easily got overfit and were not giving good results on unseen images. Researchers had been working hard to design more and more sophisticated algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and annotate multimedia data. But good research needs a good resource. To tackle these problems in large-scale, it would be tremendously helpful to researchers if there exists a large-scale image database.

This was the motivation for Prof. In , Jitendra called Geoffrey Hinton and advised him to use Imagenet and in the following year, something remarkable happened at NIPS conference, The results were so amazing that even Fei Fei got amazed and thought that something was wrong with the dataset.

Since then modern computer vision has been heavily inspired by deep learning. Visual understanding goes well beyond object recognition. Started as MIT Summer Vision Project in with an intention to solve computer in the summer of the year, Computer Vision is still not a solved problem, Even after these tremendous efforts, it only works in few specifically constrained environments. Sign in.

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Alternate Sources. Save to Library. Create Alert. For example, the background color of a webpage on which a product is displayed can prime certain attributes e. For example, the presentation of a product e. The mere presence of color, however, does not always lead to an increased preference for objects or favorable attitudes. The effect of color on feelings and arousal is well understood.

Applying these findings in the online domain, Gorn, Chattopadhyay, Sengupta, and Tripathi examined the effect that the color of a web page's background screen has on people's perception of its download speed. They manipulated hue, chroma, and value independently and found that a hue that promoted feelings of relaxation blue led to perceptions that the download was faster than did a color that did not elicit as much relaxation yellow and red. These feelings of relaxation on liking spilled over to the website in general, independently of assessments of download speeds.

As a result of these feelings, the bid that consumers make in an online auction increases when red rather than blue is used either as part of the background or the banner.

Visual perception

Such increases in arousal can also increase the likelihood that people will follow their default behavioral tendencies and become less compliant. Mehta, Demmers, van Dolen, and Weinberg , for example, found that using a red versus a white or blue background on the chat request screen of a Dutch helpline increases the likelihood of prank chats.

This perception has implications for consumption behavior. For example, in studies by Hagtvedt and Brasel , a suitcase in a more saturated color was judged to be larger, resulting in a more positive product evaluation In a different study, participants were likely to fill up more jelly beans in a cup that had a more saturated color. Although color rarely appears in isolation, its effects in conjunction with other sensory stimuli have only recently begun to be studied. Findings by Hagtvedt and Brasel suggest that higher sound frequencies cause consumers to pay greater attention to lighter colors.

This effect is presumably because consumers focus their attention on objects whose color matches the frequency of the sound they hear. In summary, the research suggests that perception of color varies not only with context, but also appear to be a function of previously stored concepts and experiences that the individual has accessible in memory.

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It also has physiological and behavioral effects on the perceiver. Similar effects can be observed with regard to other visual stimuli such as shapes and logos. The research summarized in this section focuses exclusively on the shape of products and examines its effects on preferences and behavior.

Although the reason for these effects is unclear, some research sheds light on the underlying mechanisms. One aspect of physical shape that has drawn the attention of researchers is rectangular shapes that follow the golden ratio. Many notable architectural features such as the Pyramids of Giza and the Parthenon in Rome follow this proportion, as do ad layouts, products packages, and product displays.

They suggest that these preferences are guided by whether the person believes that the product is intended for use in a frivolous versus a serious context e. For serious contexts, a tighter range of ratios is preferred, whereas for frivolous contexts, the range widens. This is presumably because serious contexts merit greater attention to aesthetics such as balance, harmony, and proportion, and in these types of situations products that were closer to the golden ratio are considered suitable.

For example, elongated containers e. Further, subjects perceive that their consumption of water is higher when they use a more elongated cup and this effect is mediated by perceived volume estimates.

Visual perception

Actual consumption is also positively influenced by the height of the container. Although the reason for these effects is somewhat unclear, Folkes and Matta suggest that containers that attract more attention e. Such perceptions of increased volume in an unusual container decrease when consumers become habituated to the shape of the container through repeated exposure. Thus, the bias in volume estimation is likely a function of the belief that shapes that are unusual and attract more attention are a better buy.

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Research on the effect of product and container shapes is relatively scant, as are the reasons why certain shapes might lead to greater perceived consumption. The effects that have been documented could have occurred because of unique designs that were considered or prior associations people have. A greater understanding of the visual processes involved in processing shapes is clearly warranted. Logos are the dominant face of a company or brand name.

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They can come in different shapes and colors and can consist of other types of features e. Even though they are relatively small, their visual elements affect the inferences that consumers make. These inferences can, in turn, affect their judgments and behavior. In this case, the logo frame has a positive effect on their purchase intent.

When consumers perceive a low level of risk, however, they exhibit a need for freedom and autonomy that leads them to interpret a logo frame as confining.

In this case, the logo frame has a negative effect on their purchase intent. Other work suggests that participants exposed to circular logo shapes as opposed to angular ones are likely to perceive the product e. Those exposed to angular shapes, on the other hand, perceive the product to be more durable. Logo shape also affects consumers attitudes and their willingness to pay for the product. Along similar lines, incorporating a dynamic aspect in logos in a way that increases the perception of movement e.

Gregory (1970) and Top Down Processing Theory

However, when the direction of movement implied by a dynamic logo is inconsistent with attributes of the company, then brand attitudes are less favorable. That is, a forward moving logo with a traditional company or backward moving logo with a modern company are liked less well than a forward moving logo with a modern company and a backward moving logo with a traditional company.

Researchers have also examined how a logo's complexity affects perceptions. People can take time to get used to complexities in design. Janiszewski and Meyvis compared how repeated exposure to two different types of stimuli affects preferences for them. In one condition, the brand name e. In the other condition, the brand name Fusion Consulting was unrelated or inconsistent with the logo steel ball, etc. Initial exposures to both stimuli revealed that consumers do not prefer the inconsistent stimuli. However, repeated exposures increased preferences for it.

There are individual and cultural differences in preference for complexity. Thus, preference for complexity in visual stimuli might be culturally determined and subject to beliefs that prevail in a particular culture. It is difficult to discuss the processing of visual elements found in logos and other marketing communications without considering how people engage in and react to art. Humans have engaged in the creative process for centuries.