Peeva, K. Acta Cybernetica 7 2 , In: Nikravesh, M.
Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 19, 9—20 Sanchez, E. Information and Control, 30, 38—48 Shieh, B. Sicat,, R. Agricultural Systems 83, 49—75 Wu, Y. Font Size. User Username Password Remember me. Notifications View Subscribe. Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required. Journal Help. Open Journal Systems. Current Issue. We also define an index of evaluation about the reliability of the results.
Keywords Fuzzy relation equation; max-min composition; GIS; triangular fuzzy number. Full Text: PDF.
References Chen, L. Soft Computing 6, — De Baets, B. Springer, Heidelberg Di Martino, F. Geoderma 77 , — Hemetsberger, M. World Scientific, Singapore Higashi, M. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 13 1 , 65—82 Kyosev, Y. Liberec, Li, P. Fuzzy Sets and Systems , — Miyakoshi, M. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 19, 37—46 Pappis, C. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 39, — Pappis, C. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 15, 79—90 Peeva, K. Not a MyNAP member yet?
Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expert system implementations employ many different knowledge-representation techniques and tools. Each technique provides an abstraction that is useful in describing some aspect of expert behavior or an improved implementation of an abstraction concept. Just as words, numbers, graphs, and sketches are different but useful abstractions, the techniques described in this appendix are various ways of describing relationships and reasoning. Tools are implementations of knowledge-representation techniques.
This appendix reviews several of the currently used representation technologies and tools discussed in the report and is not meant to be exhaustive. References are provided so that interested readers can further explore the techniques discussed here, as well as many others.
Case-based reasoning is a method for decision making based on the retrieval and adaptation of prior recorded cases. Tool functionality can range from retrieval, which only finds relevant cases in response to a user's input, to analogical reasoning, which finds and adapts a prior solution to the current situation. As such, case-based systems provide at least a primitive form of learning. Commercial tools for associative retrieval and case-based retrieval are available and significant applications are beginning to emerge.
In constraint-based reasoning, knowledge is encoded as constraints that express qualitative or quantitative relationships between design parameters. Various algorithms exist to provide varying support of constraints ranging from violation detection, to enforcement, to propagation, to satisfaction.
When reasoning about constraints, the expert system must decide which constraints are relevant to the problem and then interpret them. Constraints and constraint reasoning can support design analysis by identifying problem areas. During design synthesis, constraints can be exploited to propose a solution that is acceptable within the problem domain, provided that the problem is not overly constrained. As an aid to search, constraints can be used to confine the search space.
Jain and K. In addition, tests or performance requirements for the layout are attached to these objects enabling the layouts produced to be comparatively evaluated. Resolution of finite fuzzy relation equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 13, pp Using feedback, these algorithms adjust the set coefficients used to reinforce and combine stimuli to minimize an error score. Students have very much concerned about their teachers who have played a vital role on their life in both outside or inside of the institutions which helps them to justify a teacher and is reflected in the feedback form. If some or all of the individual's outputs are far from those of the consensus FLA, then some action could be taken to sensitize the individual about these differences.
Systems that symbolically solve mathematics problems have been investigated since the early days of artificial intelligence McCarthy, ; Minsky, Constraint reasoning is a more recent technology that has evolved in several different styles. In particular, reasoning about geometric invariance is critical to spatial reasoning.
Linking geometric reasoning to symbolic reasoning will be critical for expert system technology in material selection.
Constraint-based algorithms vary in complexity as support ranges from detection of violations through satisfaction. Violation detection can be and has been done with a variety of rule-based languages as well as procedural code. Constraint propagation is available in several commercial products. Constraint satisfaction or solution is an active research area, although some algorithms with limited capabilities are available and in use. Data dictionaries are organized references to data contained in other programs, systems, databases, or collections of files. Whereas databases store and process ordinary data about objects, data dictionaries contain data about data, or metadata.
Active data dictionaries are used to coordinate and support data retrieval and analysis between different systems or databases. Although the implementation of active data dictionaries is predominantly a research area, some limited capabilities are currently available and in use as part of database systems. Simply defined, databases store information according to a specified schema.
Relational databases are commonly used today, and they store data like that represented by tables in reference works. Database management systems are an important component of most expert systems.
They support dynamic factual recall, updating, and user access control, which may be thought of as a form of intelligent behavior. Furthermore, many of the recent advances in state-of-the-art database management systems have incorporated advanced concepts from expert database systems. Relational electronic databases are organized as rigid tables, where each record of the database is assigned an equal number of fields, each containing a specified type of entry.
Such rigid formatting is no longer necessary with the flexibility afforded by implementations such as association lists or structures and even arrays of structures. Free-format databases can save storage space when most records in the database contain entries only for a few of the many possible fields. Free-format databases are also preferred when the database is unstable and updated frequently, not only by adding records but also by adding fields or by modifying the requirements on a field.
It took many decades for Peirce's coneept of a relation to find its way into the Fuzzy Relation Equations and Their Applications to Knowledge Engineering. backlikiskinews.cf - Buy Fuzzy Relation Equations and Their Applications to Knowledge Engineering (Theory and Decision Library D:) book online at best prices in.
However, rigid formatting saves space and query time when most records of the database contain values for the same number of fields and allows nonprocedural queries to be made that automatically link together multiple tables. Modern database packages are so versatile and easy to use that the materials scientist hardly needs to worry about database formats as long as the data are well-defined quantities or arbitrary text.
However, analysis must be done in the design of a database or knowledge base. Factors to be considered include expected query scenarios and unusual data sets e. Most expert system applications involve extracting information from existing databases. Some existing database packages may be able to handle certain types of reasoning about data within the database structure itself, but in most cases the knowledge engineer must either select a different form of knowledge representation to support reasoning requirements or design a new database to handle special problems.
New technology for knowledge discovery in databases shows promise for making the information more useful in the construction of more advanced reasoning systems Piatetsky-Shapiro and Frawley, ; see ''Active Data Dictionaries". Object-oriented databases are adding the security and access facilities of databases with the flexibility of artificial intelligence data structures and may overcome performance limitations to be widely used in the future. A strength of computers is the ability to retrieve items stored in a database for use in other forms of knowledge representation or for display to inform the user.
However, the quantity of data available for most advanced materials is inadequate for the types and depth of analyses needed for knowledge base systems, including statistically based design values. Database technology has outstripped the effort to build and distribute reliable data. Fuzzy logic is a method for dealing with the inherent ambiguities in concepts and an attempt to build a formal logic for plausibility.
Fuzzy logic does not deal with probabilities but, rather, with the type of reasoning people use when faced with inconclusive or contradictory evidence. Fuzzy logic involves four basic elements: 1 schemes to convert stimuli signals to strength of belief, 2 simple rules expressed in logical terms, 3 algorithms for computing strength of belief for the conclusion of rules, and 4 output functions to convert the belief in conclusions to a control signal.